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In the last 600 years, human societies have opposed the arrival of coffee, printing, mechanized agriculture, refrigerators, recorded music, new professional software or transgenics with very similar tactics.

“There is no intelligent idea that can gain general acceptance without first mixing it with a little stupidity.” The phrase is by Fernando Pessoa and touches on a problem that human societies, have faced since they began to exist: the opposition to new technologies that can change the world.

From coffee to mechanized agriculture, through electricity, refrigerators, or recorded music, history is full of examples of how human societies have resisted adopting innovations without which today we could not understand the world.

Transgenics are Frankenstein food, as the phone was the devil’s invention.

“It is a reaction that is in our DNA, in the way our mind is organized,” every new technological contribution is viewed with suspicion, the main reason according to the most reputed psychologists is the fear of “what I do not know” , “The tribe have always done so”

1866, in the Paris Universal Exposition, Louis Napoleon III challenged scientists: to find an alternative protein source for butter that was cheaper. In his head was the need to feed an increasingly impoverished population and an army hungry and threatened by the expansionist will of other European powers.The award, won Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès, inventor of margarine.

While Europe adopted the new product, in the US it provoked the birth of the lobby of the dairy industry, which undertook an open war against food. Producers managed to get milk outlawed in several states and those laws were upheld even by the Supreme Court. In order to curb consumption of the new product, much more affordable than butter, the industry relied on invented scientific studies and hate campaigns saying that margarine was “un-American” because it contained an imported product, coconut oil. The industry stigmatized the households that consumed it because they were using a cheap product, which challenged the ability of the family to provide for their own.

Coffee, tractors, refrigerators or printing were also the subject of smear campaigns.

Margarine producers reacted by replacing coconut oil with the derivative of more “American” plants such as cotton and soybeans and established alliances with the domestic producers of these crops. Demand for margarine grew until its consumption went beyond butter in the 1950s, after laws passed against it were repealed in the middle of the previous century.

This “is one of the best examples of how the industry affected, using legal instruments, can damage or eliminate new technologies.”

Coffee, agricultural tractors, refrigerators or printing in the Muslim world were also the subject of smear campaigns. The first suffered for centuries the prohibition imposed by Muslim religious authorities, who closed by law the cafes. They did so not so much because of the infusion itself as because it was consumed in places of recreation where people talked and shared ideas, the perfect place for dissident voices to arise with established power. Cafes were banned in Mecca, Isfahan, Cairo and Constantinople for 200 years.

“We depend on new technologies in the face of global challenges.”

When coffee jumped from the Ottoman Empire to Europe, the effect was the same and the kings of some countries decreed the closure of coffee shops and “coffee clubs” that began to appear in the universities. Before Italy was the mother country of the express, the country resisted the new product for fear that it would damage the wine sector. But Pope Clement VIII made an intelligent defense of the infusion in 1600: “This drink of Satan is so delicious … it would be a pity that only infidels can use it. We will deceive Satan by baptizing her and making her a genuinely Christian drink, “he wrote.

The parallels between tactics and arguments used in the past and those that dominate current controversies such as transgenics, vaccine rejection or artificial intelligence. Transgenics are called “Frankenstein Meals”. Coffee was branded as “youthful spirit” in India, and in England, France and Germany warned that it produced sterility. The refrigerated meals were “embalmed foods”, the telephone, “instrument of the demon” and the margarine “butter of toro”.

The alleged disruptive novelty of some products is often the cause for its rejection.

Technology in all professions is a necessity, and more in the handwriting expertise, in which there are still partners who use arguments from the nineteenth century, it is necessary to update our profession with the help of new techniques and software.

It is far from the year 2000 with the change to the 21st century, for some years now we are engulfed in a digital revolution that at first seemed a complement to our analogue age, an anecdote for pijos, now the digital has shifted to the analog and form Part of our lives.

But do we really know what this means ?, because it means that if everything is like this, even if you do not like it, you have to adapt, because not only will it continue, but it will go more, before a PC was a complement that alone Had some, now even the desktop PC and laptops are being displaced, by mobile devices, increasingly light and powerful that have much more power and graphics resolution than a PC of the year 2000.

The problem is that many people of our time, have stayed in the 90’s (not to say in the 80’s or 70’s), I mean the use they make of new technologies, which is almost nil when a part of the world Is in 5G super fast networks, fiber connections of 500Mb / s, things unthinkable neither in 2000, because they are with the magnifying glass, counts them, the optical microscope without digital connection, because the digital is bad and so it goes, In this crazy country. The good thing about all this is that they are not isolated people, not that they go, they usually hold high management positions generally of official organisms and many private companies also, of course now I understand, so that they want the technology if they win a salary without as many complications, as For example adapt their knowledge to new technologies, so they prefer to discredit the digital age without reason or reason.

This is an example of what I am saying and that affects the expert calligraphic collective, is a fragment of the book published in 2001 (although written prior to this date) by Heder publishing house “Judicial Calligraphic Expertise cases and models” (Pericia Caligráfica Judicial práctica casos y modelos)

“Watch out for the scanner and digital cameras” (Translated from Spanish)

“The suggestive extensions that were attached by photo or photocopy, adding arrows or indicatives for the best observation of the Court, on the conclusions of the opinion, are now being replaced by reproductions by means of scanner, this does begin to worry the judges a little , Since on the one hand the current scannings are not reliable as the photocopy, they are interpretations by micro points of the original reflection, and on the other hand, they are susceptible of retouching by a computer program.This also happens with the photographs taken by camera Digital, the “pixels” are tiny specks that try to reconstruct the image captured, but it is not the image but an interpretation as it has been said with the scanner.”

I have copied it from the book verbatim, because the truth is not wasteful, it’s great, at that time neither the cameras nor the scanners had the resolution they have now, nor the computers, but the good thing is that these people and their important followers Official scientific departments, continue to believe that digital technology is unreliable, which falsifies and changes the original documents when treated with computer programs.

How a Photocopier Works

An old analog photocopier, similar to a scanner, emits a light on the document, which is reflected in a drum loaded with static electricity, which upon contact with the paper, electrostatically marks it and then a toner is discharged. Stick to the paper. The maximum resolutions were about 200 x 200 dpi in the photocopy printing.

Currently the digital ones are like an optical scanner that digitizes the document in memory, high resolutions 600 x 600 dpi or 2400 x 600 dpi more depends on the model. Therefore a photocopier currently uses a sensor just like a digital desktop scanner.

A digital image, effectively if it can be modified with a PC, like a photocopy more manually, but you can find out if it has been modified by analyzing and digitally expanding suspicious areas, where we can see if images have been pasted that do not belong to original. The advantages of saving a digital image are greater.

Digitization Process

To digitize a document we have to obtain a map of points by means of a sensor of some capture device, such as a scanner or a digital camera, the more resolution the sensor has, the more points per inch of metric we can generate in a format file Graphic, the more points the larger the file will be in memory, our human eye can appreciate maximum resolutions of 0.1 mm between points, which corresponds approximately to about 250 dpi although due to hardware errors, lenses etc … Usually increases to 300 dpi to say that it is a high resolution and suitable for printing with good quality.

The PC reading the graphic file, obtains the map of points of the sensor, but depending on the type of graphic file that we have chosen to save it, you will lose more information or nothing, for example the compression format that has * .JPEG is destructive and removes original information to get less space in memory, * .TIF format can be configured without compression, but although compressed, it is not a destructive compression.

Has a higher resolution digital camera or analogue with traditional film

A study by Hugo Rodriguez in 2004 https://www.hugorodriguez.com/articulos/digital_vs_pelicula_04.htm compares a camera with digital Kodak system (13,5 Mp the maximum that existed at that time) with a traditional Nikon F5 (Velvia) film, which concluded the following:

1) The digital system has a resolution power slightly higher than the film. But, there are already sensors of 16.7 Mp and will soon appear more than 20 Mp, so the difference will be remarkable. (Now this is out of date)
2) Digital suffers from moiré when the details of the scene are very fine and are not aligned vertically or horizontally. The film represents them well, regardless of their orientation.
3) The film could have an estimated resolution power of 12-13 MP (approximate value).
4) Digital is devoid of grain, which gives it a higher quality feeling, because the image is cleaner, but does not provide more information.
5) Taking into account the higher resolution power and – above all – the absence of grain, 14MP offer clearly higher quality than film.


Kodak-DCS-760 6Mp Nikon lens year 2001.

When we published the book we referred to, it was the year 2001, the most advanced digital camera sensors were a maximum of 6 MP currently manufactured professional cameras such as the HASSELBLAD H6D 100C with 53.4 x 40.0mm CMOS sensor 100MP its price 34,969 € (VAT included) or within the professional SLR the CANON EOS 5DS R with full frame CMOS sensor of 50.6 MP its price 3,799 € (VAT included), being common in any compact or SLR of lower level surpass The 20 MP resolution.

… we have better resolution with a digital camera at the moment than an analog film that does not exceed 12-13 Mp approximately, in addition the traditional film produces graphical noise in grain form, something that does not happen in the digital …

How a digital zoom works

A digital image is map of points as we explained, those points called pixels to enlarge the image have to separate from each other to enlarge the image, the problem is that, if we separate them a lot, at the end we will see gaps between them, and the image will lose, even though having the same number of original pixels, these holes have to be filled as we increase, for which a mathematical interpolation algorithm is used, there are several types of algorithms of this type, but basically they are based on calculating the intermediate pixels of the holes, based on the color information of those around the one that is to be calculated and which are real pixels obtained with the scanning of the sensor, the algorithm is not invented, it calculates it on real information. There comes a moment, that if it expands a lot is visualized a point so great that produces a pixelation effect of the image, in MacWinLin CPS seeing that no graphic processing software corrects this, it has applied an algorithm to the new zoom HQ which interpolates without pixelation effect, improving the quality of the image compared to the traditional digital zoom.

The human eye, the basis of digital cameras, advantages and disadvantages

blankThe human eye is a “biological digital sensor”, used as the basis for the digital sensors of the cameras, is composed of two types of receptors, very complex and perfectly differentiated:

“Cones” depending on the person we can have between 6 or 7 million for each eyeball, are sensitive to the wavelength of light that hits them, that is, appreciate the colors. There are 3 types, one that captures the red light (650 nm), another that captures the green light (530 nm) and finally those that capture the blue light (430 nm), eg birds and reptiles have another new type Captures ultraviolet light (<350 nm).

“Rods” we have approximately 100 or 120 million for each eyeball, and are sensitive to brightness, the sensitivity is much greater than that of the “cones” in the blue-green light around 500 nm, at other wavelengths and with high luminosity they saturate and perceive nothing, the “rods” allow us to see forms but not the colors in very weak light conditions, although by their form of grouping, do not allow to view so many details. It is believed that we have more of them, because our ocular system was developed and adapted for dark environments, for many millions of years and our coexistence with environments with more light, in evolutionary terms, is much more near.

Types of vision depending on the number of “cones”:

  • Tetracromatic: 4 or more cones (birds, reptiles and fish, see ultraviolet)
  • Trichromatic: 3 types of cones (man and primates).
  • Dichromatic: 2 types of cones, the vast majority of animals.
  • Monochromatic: 1 cone type, (Raccoons and salamanders)

An advantage we have with respect to the eye of other animals, is that the human eye can regenerate very quickly, in the face of the photonic degradation of its pigments, the photons that impact the eye on a sunny day, degrade the pigments of the “cones “Which are automatically regenerated, even if there is no light, so if we change to a dark environment, it will regenerate its pigments to adapt quickly to night vision.

The response of the eye to the intensity of light is not linear is closer to logarithmic increments and depends on the wavelength (color) in question. This response causes the human vision system to have hysteresis and make it difficult to see moving images but are presented at a frequency equal to or greater than 24 Hz, ie 24 images per second, for example on a monitor if the frequency is less than 24 Hz we will appreciate a flicker in the image as it moves.

The eye between cones and rods, has a total approximate of about 106 to 127 Megapixels equivalent depending on the person, but due to a limitation of the optic nerve to 1 million nerve fibers, can only transmit information for 1 Megapixel, it is in the center of the retina “the fovea” and the surrounding area, where there is good image resolution occupying about 3 degrees of vision of the 120º field of vision that has an eye, and where are the approximately 6-7 megapixels of cones. I mean, right downtown. That is why we only focus on what is exactly, at the center of our vision and the blurred sides. In order to transmit all the information of 6-7 megapixels by a optical nerve of 1 megapixel the eye,

….the Spanish investigator Luis Martínez Otero affirms that the eye has to compress images, this does our brain that is sufficiently advanced like to complete all that information that lack, according to the information of what is being seen, JUST LIKE AN ALGORITHM OF INTERPOLATION….

Final conclusion

How dare they criticize current digital imaging sensors, whose operating principle has been precisely copied from our human eye, and to criticize interpolation algorithms for digital zoom software, when we see a virtual reality that creates our Brain, using part of what we are seeing at that moment to INTERPOLAR THE LOST HOLES AND EMPTY IMAGES, which are created by the bottleneck that causes the optic nerve, when transmitting information.

MacWinLin CPS